Flooding Damages and Proper Ways to Control It
The generally accepted definition of a flood is a body of water covering land usually dry under normal circumstances. Floods are natural catastrophes. They interfere with lives of millions of people across the globe. Identified negative effects include; they destroy premises, influence soil erosion and contaminate water for drinking. Causes of floods are many including overflowing lakes, rivers as well as seas. Human life shares history with floods. Notably, human beings started by settling along rivers and slowly began to civilize. Water is life as such; man was forced to settle along riverbanks.
It is essential to note that floods are not entirely destructive. The land around river Nile in Egypt for instance, became fertile due to the nutrients deposited by floods every year The deposition took place way before Aswan high Dam was put up to control the floods. Despite their fatal nature, floods deposit fertile soil in Bangladesh during the monsoon season. It is besides the fact that so many lives are lost in the process.
Floods always hit land next to rivers and water masses at yearly. Heavy rainfall in the sources of rivers makes them carry more water to the mouth. The other related cause is the melting of snow in the mountains where most rivers have sources. Flash floods are caused by thunderstorms in many ways. In this case, small rivers swell fast forcing them to carry water tenfold their capacity. Usually, those that flow slowly carry silt, sand and water. They erect beds in the process. Beds raise rivers above their normal level even in comparison to the land that hosts them. Examples of such rivers are in Chicago.
Damaging effects of floods by rivers in Phoenix AZ is a product of gradual development. More land stands affected. Coastal lands in Fort Myers are not an exceptional to floods. Floor tsunamis that result from earthquakes on the ocean lead to more than 15-meter high waves. With this height, flooding spreads to miles away. A tsunami in the Indian claimed more than 250,000 people. Thailand, Sri Lanka and Indonesia are some of the countries that felt the effects.
Cyclones, hurricanes as well as tropical storms are other causes of destructive floods. The whole region of Mississippi Delta felt the strength of Hurricane Katrina as it did Chicago. The floods did not spare Fort Myers and Phoenix AZ. Participating agencies did well to evacuate people as damages and ravages would have been more. Low-lying areas have a higher risk of flooding. The Netherlands, whose major part lies below sea level, is an example. Similarly, life in Haiti came to a standstill as almost the entire country was wiped by floods.
Actions by human beings also cause flooding. No one disputes the role of trees and plants in protecting the world from the effects of excessive water. Water flows through bare land following deforestation. Mudslides result from the same. Actions of excess water on dams causes cracks. In fact; total breakage is the final result. Safety and protection measures are nowadays taken to prevent the destructive nature of floods. The Netherlands for instance, has constructed dams and dykes to safeguard the land along the coast.